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AqueaTether™ (AqT™) Reagents and kits


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AqT™ Product & Reagent Flyer

CellMosaic is developing next-generation conjugation kits and products based on our proprietary super-hydrophilic and high-loading AqueaTether™ (AqT™) linkers.

AqT™ linkers are novel proprietary biomaterials invented at CellMosaic and are chemically assembled from a class of natural and edible sugar alcohol (SA) compounds with properties by design. AqT™ linkers are designed for labeling and conjugating biomolecules with very hydrophobic small molecules, such as fluorescent compounds, biotin, and small molecule drugs. Branched AqT™ crosslinking reagents can also be designed to allow high amounts of detecting molecules to be loaded onto a biomolecule for detection purposes.



For a detailed description of the AqT™ technologies, please see our technology section.

Products we are developing include:

AqT™ biotin labeling kits and products

Biotin is a very hydrophobic molecule. Based on our experience, antibodies and proteins labeled with biotin tend to aggregate and precipitate out from solution over time. In the past, for optimized performance, we have controlled all antibody and protein biotin labeling to 2-4 biotin per antibody/protein. However, in many cases, high loading of biotin is desirable for an enhanced/amplified signal or selection. We have modified biotin with AqT™ linker to increase biotin’s hydrophilicity. The hydroxy (-OH) groups of AqT™ linkers create a microenvironment that shields neighboring biotins from stacking or interacting with one another. Antibody/protein can be labeled with a high amount of AqT™-biotin with minimum or no aggregation. CellMosaic is currently developing AqT™ biotin labeling kits and products. If you are interested in using such products or co-developing AqT™ biotin-based products, please let us know.

AqT™ fluorescence labeling kits and products

Like biotin, most fluorescent compounds are very hydrophobic. It is very difficult to load more than 4 dye molecules per antibody/protein without any aggregation. On the other hand, even if we can increase the dye loading for some antibodies, such as 6-8 fluorescein per antibody, the amplification of signal is not proportional to the number of dyes labeled due to the aggregation or stacking of the aromatic core (fluorescence quenching). AqT™-dye modified with AqT™ linkers contains multiple OH groups that can interact with neighboring water and create a microenvironment that prevents or shields neighboring dyes from stacking, such that antibody/protein labeled with a high amount of AqT™-dye will have increased signal proportional to the number of dye molecules loaded. Our initial experiment shows that AqT™-fluorescein has a vivid and bright color compared to unmodified fluorescein. With the same dye loading, AqT™-fluorescein-labeled antibody has a few times higher signal than fluorescein-labeled antibody. AqT™-dye does not introduce an ionic group that can change the properties of antibodies, as occurs in most of the modified commercial dyes with increased water solubility. AqT-linker hydrophilicity depends on the hydroxyl (-OH) group (charge neutral). CellMosaic is currently developing AqT™ fluorescent dyes with maximum absorbance ranging from the UV to Vis wavelength: AqT™ 343, AqT™ 445, AqT™ 496, AqT™ 555, AqT™ 560, AqT™ 570, AqT™ 646, AqT™ 750. These dyes will be used to create PerKit™ and conjugates. If you are interested in using such products or co-developing AqT™ dye-based products, please let us know. 

AqT™ assay plates

Enzymes/antibodies/proteins (biopolymers) immobilized on assay plates via covalent linkage generally have decreased activity and stability compared to the soluble biopolymers. Most of these plates are polystyrene or polyethylene-based, which are very hydrophobic. Hydrophobic surfaces not only cause high background noise due to nonspecific binding of proteins, but also destabilize the immobilized proteins. CellMosaic is developing AqT™ assay plates coated with AqT™ linkers to increase the hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of the plates. Biopolymers will also be immobilized onto the plates via AqT™ linkers. The end results are long shelf life, high loading, and increased signals for AqT™ assay plates. CellMosaic is developing AqT™ assay plates that are either pre-coated with assay molecules or to be coated by our customers. If you are interested in co-developing AqT™ assay plates, please let us know. 

AqT™ immobilization kits and products

CellMosaic is developing next-generation immobilization kits and products using sugar alcohol-based AqT™ linkers. In many cases, we need to load very hydrophobic small molecules (antigen molecules) onto a solid support. Many of these immobilizations must be done in an aqueous environment. Even with sugar-based agarose beads, we experience challenges obtaining high loading with conventional ethylene or PEG-based linkers. When we manage to achieve high loading, beads end up aggregating/clustering together and are difficult to use. On the other hand, there have been many developments in non-sugar-based beads for immobilization purposes, such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The surface of PMMA is very hydrophobic. AqT™ modification can convert the surface of these beads to be hydrophilic and more biocompatible. CellMosaic is currently developing AqT™-modified beads and immobilization kits/products. If you are interested in co-developing AqT™ beads and immobilization kits, please let us know.

AqT™ therapeutics

One of the main goals of developing AqT linkers and polymers is for drug conjugation and delivery. Please visit www.aqttherapeutics.com to learn more about these applications. Customers who wish to develop their own proprietary therapeutics based on AqT linkers and polymers are encouraged to contact us for how to access these technologies.