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Surface Activation

This is an intermediate step that prepares functionalized solid support for biopolymer immobilization. Some of the solid supports are available commercially in active form . For non-active solid supports, we can either convert them to an activate form first or let them react directly to a biopolymer using active coupling reagents.

CellMosaic uses these processes exclusively for supporting our custom Biopolymer Immobilization.

Example 1: CNBr activation of agarose.

  • Description
  • Scheme
  • References


The preparation of active esters of hydroxyl-containing solid supports for reaction with amine-containing biopolymers or small molecules.

  • Chemistry: Cyanogen bromide reacts with hydroxyl groups to form a cyanate ester.
  • Starting materials: Solid supports containing hydroxyl groups such as agarose.
  • Note: CNBr-activate solid supports produced in CellMosaic will be used directly for the large scale immobilization of antigens/antibodies due to the stability issue of active cyanate esters.


Activation of solid supports by BrCN



CNBr activation of solid support



1. Axén, R.; Porath, J.; Ernback, S. Chemical coupling of peptides and proteins to polysaccharides by means of cyanogen halides. Nature. 1967, Jun 24;214(5095):1302-4.

2. Porath, J.; Aspberg, K.; Drevin, H.; Axén, R. Preparation of cyanogen bromide-activated agarose gels. J Chromatogr. 1973, 86, 53-65.

3. March, S. C.; Parikh, I; Guatrecasas, P. A. Simplified method for cyanogen bromide activation of agarose for affinity chromatography. Analytical Biochem. 1974, 60, 149-152.

4. Kohn, J.; Wilchek, M. A colorimetric method for monitoring activation of sepharose by cyanogen bromide. Biochem Biophys Research Communications 1978, 84, 7-14.